Characterization of Lateralite: An Environment Friendly Chemical Additive for Soil Stabilization

  • Adewale O. Ogundalu Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Lagos, Akoka-Yaba, Lagos. Nigeria
  • Ndubuisi N. Obaji Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Lagos, Akoka-Yaba
  • Rebecca O. Ogunjimi Department of Geological Technology, School of Applied Sciences. Federal Polytechnic Offa, Offa, Kwara State. Nigeria
  • Akindele C. Apata Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Lagos, Akoka-Yaba, Lagos. Nigeria
Keywords: Lateralite, Spectroscopy, Microscopy


The objective of this paper is to determine the chemical composition of Lateralite stabilizer and to characterize Lateralite, stabilizer as a solution for improving the engineering properties of fined grained lateritic and clayey soil for road construction. Oxides and metallic compositions of Lateralite was determined by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, AAS, composition of chemical elements of Lateralite stabilizer was determined by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and a quantitative analysis by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) associated with Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The oxide composition of Lateralite as determined by AAS is: Calcium Oxide (63.89%), Silicon Oxide (18.31%), Aluminium Oxide (5.89%), Ferrous oxide (1.67%), Magnesium oxide (1.56%), Sulphur oxide (1.22%), Potassium oxide (0.78%), Sodium oxide (0.41%) and L.O.I 6.27%.  The elemental composition analysis by XPS revealed ten (10) elements with Percentage Atomic Concentration, PAC, as: Oxygen (54.33%), Carbon (18.26%), Silicon (9.38%), Calcium (7.56%), Magnesium (4.08%), Aluminium (2.90%), Sodium (2.47%), Ferrous (0.44%), Sulphur (0.31%) and Nitrogen (0.27%) while SEM revealed eleven (11) elements: Oxygen (57.9%), Calcium (21.13%), Silicon (11.08%), Aluminium (4.23%), Ferrous (1.89%), Sulphur (1.07%), Magnesium (1.02%), Sodium (0.99%), Potassium (0.35%), Tin (0.18%) and Barium (0.17%). The three (3) characterization techniques used, (AAS, XPS and SEM) revealed the exchangeable cations in Lateralite are Calcium (7.56%), Magnesium (4.08%), Aluminium (2.90%) and Sodium (2.47%) which are in the ratio 3: 1.65:1.17:1, (Ca2+: Mg2+: Al3+ :Na+). This shows a high concentration and quantity of exchangeable calcium cations over other cations. This will enable the formation of Calcium compounds with very strong and stable inter-particle bonds and a stable Lateralite-stabilized soil mixture.


Adeyemi, G.O. and Oyeyemi, F. (2000).' ‘Geotechnical basis for failure of sections of the Lagos-Ibadan Expressway, South Western Nigeria’. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and Environment (2000), 59:39-45. Available on

Al Rawas AA, Goosen MFA (2006). Expansive soils-Recent advances in characterization and treatment. Taylor & Francis group, Balkema

Bing So, Peter M. Kopittke, Neal W. Menzies and Ross C. Bigwood 2004. SuperSoil 2004: 3rd Australian New Zealand Soils Conference, 5 – 9 December 2004, University of Sydney, Australia. Published on CDROM. Website

Frempong, E.M., and Yanful, E.K.(2008), ‘Interaction between Three Tropical Soils and Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Leachate’’. J.Geotech and Goenv. Engrg. ASCE, Vol.134, No.3, 379-396

Igboama, W.N., Hammed, O., Aroyehun, M., and Ugwu, N.U., (2021): Geoelectrical and Geotechnical Characterization of Different Types of Soil in Ede, Osun State, Nigeria. FUOYE Journal of Engineering and Technology Vol. 6 Iss. 2 (June 2021 issue).

Jegede, G. (2000): Effect of Soil Properties on Pavement Failures along the F209 Highway at Ado Ekiti, Southwestern Nigeria. Construction and Building Materials. Vol. 14, pp 311-315.

Meshida, E.A. (2005). ‘Terralite: A new stabilizer for fine grained Lateritic soils for road works’, Proceedings of the International Conference in Engineering, University of Lagos, Nigeria. Pp.183-193.

Meshida, E.A. (2006).’Highway failure over talc-tremolite schist terrain: a case study of the Ife to Ilesha Highway, South-Western Nigeria’. Bulletin Engineering Geology and Environment (2006) 65:457-461, DOI: 10.1007/s10064-005-0037-7.

Meshida, E.A., Alayaki, F.M., and Akambi, E.O. (2011). A comparative study of Portland cement, hydrated lime and lateralite as stabilizing agents of Quaternary coastal plain sands North of Lagos Metropolis and as road construction material. Proceedings of the environmental conference, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria

Mitchell, J.K., and Soga, K. (2005). Fundamentals of soil behavior, 3rd edition. Wiley and Sons Inc., New Jersey, USA.

Ogundalu, A.O., Oyekan, G.L. and Meshida, E.A. (2013).’Effect of Steel Mill Scale on the strength characteristics of Expansive Clay Soils (Black Cotton Soil)’. Civil and Environmental Research, International Institute for Science, Technology & Education, IISTE, ISSN 2224-5790(Paper), Vol.3, No.12, 2013. Available online at:

Ogunribido, T.H.T. (2012a). ‘Effects of Rock Flour on Some Engineering Properties of Lateritic Soil’. Int. J. Pure Appl. Sci. Technol, 10(1) (2012), pp.10-16. ISSN 2229-6107, available online at

Ogunribido, T.H.T, (2012b).’ Geotechnical Properties of Saw Dust Ash Stabilized Southwestern Nigeria Lateritic Soils’. Environmental Research, Engineering and Management, 2012. No.2 (60), P. 29-33,

Ogunsanya O.A., Aluko O.O. and Ogundipe O.M. (2022): Performance of Glass and Steel Slag Mixtures as a Partial Replacement for Fine Aggregate in Asphalt Concrete, FUOYE Journal of Engineering and Technology (FUOYEJET), 7(2), 257-263.

Osinubi, K.J., Amadi, A.A., and Eberemu, A.O. (2006a).’Shrinkage Characteristics of Compacted Laterite Soil-Fly Ash Mixtures’. NSE Technical Transactions, Vol.41, No.1, pp.36-48

Osinubi, K.J. (2006b). ” Influence of Compactive Efforts on Lime-Slag Treated Tropical Black Clay”. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, American Society of Engineers, March/April 2006, pp.175-181.

Osinubi, K.J. and Amadi, A.A. (2010). ‘Evaluation of strength of compacted lateritic soil-bentonite mixture for use as landfill liner and cover’. Journal of Engineering Research, University of Lagos, Nigeria, September 2010, JER-15, No.3, pp.78-87. ISSN:0795-2333

Osinubi, K.J. and Kundiri, A.M. (2007). ‘Shrinkage Characteristics of Two Compacted Tropical Soils’. Proc. Of Bi-monthly Meetings/ Workshops organized by the Zaria Chapter of Material Society of Nigeria, pp.37-43

Ramadas, T.L, Dargar Kumar, N and Yesuratnam, G. (2011).’Geotechnical Characteristics of three expansive soils treated with lime and fly ash’. International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering. ISSN 0974-5904, Vol.04, No.06 SPL, October 2011, pp.46-49

Sabat, A.K. and Nanda, R.P. (2011).”Effect of marble dust on strength and durability of rice husk ash stabilized expansive soil.” International Journal of Civil and Structural Engineering, Vol.1 (4), pp.939-948

Sabat A.K. (2012). “A study on some geotechnical properties of lime stabilised expansive soil-quarry dust mixes.” International Journal of Emerging trends in Engineering and development, Issue 2, Vol.1, pg 42-49

Singh, A. (1992). Modern Geotechnical Engineering. Third edition, pp.11-24, CBS Publishers and Distributors PVT, Limited, CBS Plaza, 4819/XI Prahlad Street, 24 Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi – 110002, India.