Friction Welding Processes: A Review

Keywords: Direct drive welding, Friction stir welding, Inertia welding, Linear friction welding, Rotary friction welding


Friction welding is a sort of solid-state welding process that does not use flux, shielding gases, or filler metal; instead, the heat needed to fuse the materials is produced by the friction between two or more objects moving relative to one another. This kind of welding is an alternative to the traditional fusion and adhesive-based welding procedures. The method is reliable, capable of joining materials that would seem hard to join with traditional welding, and suitable for joining both similar and dissimilar materials including wood, steel, aluminum, copper, masurium, nickel, zinc and carbon steel. Friction welding can be carried out by using several techniques including linear, rotary, friction stir, direct drive and inertia welding. Each of these welding techniques is distinct and are named according to the relative motion involved. Although the process varies slightly subject to the type of motion, the procedure is consistent and the resultant joint is comparable with those obtained through conventional welding technique. This study reviews the distinct friction welding processes and specific techniques involved in the process.