Design and Implementation of Robotic Maize Seed Planter.

  • Felix Ayanniran
  • Adefemi A. Adekunle
  • Segun R. Bello
  • Kehinde O. Adisa


The automatic maize seed planter design to address the limitations of traditional planting techniques and reduce the lead time in agricultural processes and enhance the output. The research encompasses a comprehensive study of maize sowing techniques, challenges, and advancements in agricultural robotics. The literature review explores the limitations of traditional maize sowing techniques, such as inaccurate seed placement, labor intensiveness, and weather dependence. The construction process involves the integration of a chassis, wheels, sensors, microcontroller, and seed dispensing system. The software component utilizes a custom algorithm to control the movement and seed placement of the robot. Experimental testing and evaluation were conducted to assess the performance of the robot. The accuracy of seed placement was determined by analyzing the deviation from the desired spacing. The efficiency of the robot was measured by comparing the time taken for sowing with traditional methods. The results demonstrated that the automatic maize seed planter achieved high accuracy in seed placement with minimal deviation from the desired spacing. The results validate the effectiveness of the robotic system in addressing the limitations of traditional sowing techniques and demonstrate its potential to revolutionize the agriculture industry. The objectives are to develop a cost-effective, efficient, and accurate maize seed planter and implement the design in the fabrication. Recommendations for further work is real-time mapping and monitoring. Real-time mapping and monitoring of the field can help the robot navigate the field more efficiently and accurately.  


Garg, R., and Yadav, R. (2017). Agricultural Robotics: A Comprehensive Review. Journal of Robotics, 2017, 1-15.

Griepentrog HW, Dühring Jaeger CL, Paraforos DS, 2013. Robots for field operations with comprehensive multilayer control. Künstl Intell 27: 325-333. s13218-013-0266-z

International Federation of Robotics. (2021). Definition of service robots.

International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA). (2009). Maize facts and figures. Retrieved from

Khawar, K. M., Nadeem, M. A., Ahmad, R., and Ahmad, N. (2007). Evaluation of maize hybrids for grain yield and quality traits in Punjab, Pakistan. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 3(11), 1446-1450.

Liang, X., Ding, H., Wang, Q., Zou, X., and Chen, X. (2021). Application of robotics in agricultural management: A review. Journal of Cleaner Production, 306, 127214.

Mili, F. R., Kamsani, N. F., Faisal, M., and Chee, Y. P. (2021). An overview of seed sowing methods for different crops. Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food, 14(3), 215-223.

Rossel RAV, McBratney AB, 1998. Soil chemical analytical accuracy and costs: implications from precision agriculture. Aust J Exp Agric 38: 765-775. EA97158

Savary, A., Ballerini, R., Aït-Amar, H., and Martinez, D. (2019). Agriculture and robotics: a review of the literature. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 39(2), 19.

ZMili, F. R., Kamsani, N. F., and Musa, N. M. (2022). A review of automated seed sowing systems for agricultural applications. IEEE Access, 10, 3511-3527.