Development and Performance Evaluation of an Integrated Bio-degradable Kitchen Waste Comminution and Drying Machine

  • John C. Edeh Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike
  • Raphael E. Ozioko Department of Mechanical Engineering, Enugu State University of Technology, Agbani, Nigeria
  • Caleb O. Obilor Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike
  • James O. Nwosu Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gregory University, Uturu, Nigeria.
Keywords: kitchen waste, communition, shredding, biodegradable, drying efficiency, innovation

Abstract

In this study, a kitchen waste comminution machine for converting biodegradable waste was designed, fabricated, and evaluated, using locally sourced standard materials. The machine consists of two unit operations: the comminution unit for grinding/shredding of the biodegradable domestic waste using grinding discs and the drying unit for moisture removal from the ground material using a heating element. The units were integrated and synchronized for continuous operation using a pulley-belt arrangement and powered by a single phase 2 HP electric motor. The drying unit equipped with an auger-like shaft for material stirring and conveying/evacuation was lagged for the prevention of excessive heat loss. The performance of the machine was evaluated using various kitchen wastes of tuber peels, fruit peels, vegetable stalks, and grain chaffs for shredding efficiency, throughput capacity, and dryness. The approximate values of the designed machine were established, as a force of 150 N and heat of 2 kW were required for respective grinding and drying of an average mass of 5.87 kg of the bio-waste. The machine performance analysis revealed comminution/shredding efficiency of 71.08%, drying efficiency of 32.78%, and throughput of 0.05 kg/s at an average moisture removal rate of 0.018 kg/s for bio-waste conversion. The production cost of the machine stood at N 250,000 (Two hundred and fifty thousand naira) only. Thus, the adoption of this innovation is recommended as a veritable option for the quality management of domestic kitchen waste since it reduces littering and promotes hygiene.

References

Adeniyi, P. A., Ishola, A. O., Laoye, B. J., Olatunji, B. P., Bankole, O. O., Shallie, P. D., & Ogundele, O. M. (2016). Neural and be Aravindan, V., Dineshkumar, A., Giriprasath, B., Karthikeyan, V. and Ebenezer, D. (2017). The moisture removal rate of solar dryers – A review. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 7, 218-224.

Duca, D., Riva, G., Foppa, P. E., & Toscano, G. (2014). Wood pellet quality concerning EN14961-2 standard and certifications. Fuel, 135 (1), 9-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2014.06.042

Edeh, I. G., Mašek, O., & Buss, W. (2020). A meta-analysis on biochar's effects on soil water properties: New insights and future research challenges. Science of the Total Environment, 714, 136857.

Enweremadu, C. C., Ojediran,, J. O., Oladeji, J. T., & Afolabi, L. O. (2004). Evaluation of energy potential in husks from soybean and cowpea. Science Focus, 8, 18-23.

FAO. (2020), Food loss and food waste. Food and Agriculture.

Finlay, A., & Liechti, D. (2008). E-waste assessment South Africa. eWASA policy report. Empa: Johannesburg, South Africa: Open research. http://www.ngopulse.org/sites/default/files/eWaste%20Assessment%20South%20Africa.pdf (accessed 7 June 2018).

Garcı́a, A. J., Esteban, M. B., Márquez, M. C., & Ramos, P. (2005). Biodegradable municipal solid waste: Characterization and potential use as animal feedstuffs. Waste Management, 25(8), 780-787. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2005.01.006

Havlíček, F. & Morcinek, M. (2016). Waste and pollution in the Ancient Roman Empire. Journal of Landscape Ecology, 9(3), 33–49. Doi: 10.1515/jlecol-2016-0013.

Janduir, E. S., Dulse, M. A. M., Marcus, A. F. M., Emmerson, M. A., Alexandra, S. P., Everaldo, P. M., Guilherme, Q. C., & Renata, M. B. (2019). Energetic Characterization and Evaluation of briquettes produced from naturally colored Cotton waste. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 26(14), 14259-14265. doi: 10.1007/s11356-019-04777-z.

Khurmi, R. S., & Gupta J. K. (2005). A textbook of machine design. S. Chand Publishing.

Komilis, D., Evangelou, A., Giannakis, G. & Lymperis, C. (2012) Revisiting the elemental composition and the calorific value of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. Waste Management, 32, 372-381.

Nzioka, A. M., Hwang, H. U., Kim, M. G., Troshin, A.G., CaoZheng, Y., & Kim, Y. J. (2016). Experimental Investigation of drying process for Mixed Municipal Solid Waste: Case Study of Wastes Generated in Nairobi, Kenya. Int'l Journal of Advances in Agricultural & Environmental Engg. (IJAAEE), 3(1) ISSN 2349-1523 EISSN 2349-1531

Orhorhoro, E. K., Ebunilo, P. O., Tamuno, R. I., Essienubong, I. A. (2016). The study of anaerobic co-digestion of non-uniform multiple feedstock availability and composition in Nigeria. European Journal of Engineering Research and Science, 1(1), 39-42. https://doi.org/10.24018/ejeng.2016.1.1.38

Oladejo, A. E., Manuwa, S. I., & Onifade, T. B. (2020). Design and fabrication of a shredder. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 445. doi:10.1088/17551315/445/1/012001

Pothi, N. (2016). An estimation of a rated motor for a multi-purpose shredder machine University Journal of Science and Technology, reciclables para delimitar el tiempo de carga de celular,” Quito -Ecuador, 163-169.

Salemdeeb, R., Zu Ermgassen, E. K., Kim, M. H., Balmford, A., & Al-Tabbaa, A. (2017). Environmental and health impacts of using food waste as animal feed: A comparative analysis of food waste management options. Journal of Cleaner Production, 140, 871 - 880.

Sanjay, I. & Kumar, H. (2015) Design and fabrication of coconut leaves shredder. International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science, 3(4), part 2, 273-281.

Schmidt, C. W. (2006). Unfairtrade - E-waste in Africa. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114: A232-A23

Screenivas, H., Sundeep, Y., Ajayi, N. K., & Krishnamurthy, N. (2017). Conceptual design and development of shredding machine for agricultural waste International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering, and Technology, 6(5), 2347-510

Shigley, J. E. (1986). Mechanical Engineering Design. S.I (metric) ed. New York, USA: McGraw-Hill, Organization of the United Nations: Rome, Italy

Smith, J. U, Fischer, A., Hallett, P. D., Homans, H. Y., Smith, P., AbdulSalam, Y., Emmerling, H. H., & Phimister, E. (2015). Sustainable use of organic resources for bioenergy, food, and water provision in rural Sub-Saharan Africa. Renew Sustain Energy Rev, 50, 903–917.

Tun, M. M., & Juchelkova, D. (2018). Evaluation of biodegradable waste quality by drying for exploring the possibilities of a potential renewable energy source in Yangon City, Myanmar. International Journal of Renewable Energy Research, 8(4), 2026 -2034.

Yang, X., Choi, H. S., Park, C., & Kim, S.W. (2015) Current status and prospects of organic waste utilization for biorefineries. Renew Sustain Energy Rev, 49, 335–349. havioural changes in male periadolescent mice after prolonged nicotine-MDMA treatment. Metabolic brain disease, 31(1), 93-107.

Balogun, V. A., Aramcharoen, A., Mativenga, P. T., & Chuan, S. K. (2013). Impact of Machine Tools on the Direct Energy and Associated Carbon Emissions for a Standardized NC Toolpath Re-engineering Manufacturing for Sustainability (pp. 197-202): Springer.

Balogun, V. A., Kirkwood, N. D., & Mativenga, P. T. (2014). Direct Electrical Energy Demand in Fused Deposition Modelling. Procedia CIRP, 15, 38-43.

Balogun, V. A., & Mativenga, P. T. (2013). Modelling of direct energy requirements in mechanical machining processes. Journal of Cleaner Production, 41, 179-186.

Chen, L., Hoey, J., Nugent, C. D., Cook, D. J., & Yu, Z. (2012). Sensor-based activity recognition. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part C (Applications and Reviews), 42(6), 790-808.

Kong, D., Choi, S., Yasui, Y., Pavanaskar, S., Dornfeld, D., & Wright, P. (2011). Software-based tool path evaluation for environmental sustainability. Journal of Manufacturing Systems, 30(4), 241-247. doi: 10.1016/j.jmsy.2011.08.005

Young, J., Roy, H. S., & Young, J. (2007). Transforming server-side processing grammars: Google Patents.

Published
2024-03-30