Response Surface Modelling and Optimization of Lead Adsorption from Wastewater Using Rice Husk Activated Carbon

  • Aliyu A. Dandajeh Ahmadu Bello University Zaria
  • Nura I. Abdullahi
  • Aliyu Ishaq
  • Aminu O. Ahmed
Keywords: Adsorption; lead; Nigeria; pollution; rice husk

Abstract

Nigeria is renowned for its vast production of paddy rice, resulting in a significant volume of rice husk generation. Consequently, the conversion of these quantities of rice husk into beneficial applications is imperative to mitigate environmental pollution. The rice husk, procured from local millers in Zaria market, Nigeria, was subjected to thermal and chemical methods to produce activated carbon. The carbonization process involved heating at three different temperatures (300, 350 and 400 ℃) and subsequent mixing with 1M H3PO4 at a 1:2 ratio. Batch adsorption experiments were conducted, varying dosages of rice husk activated carbon (1 - 5 g), lead initial concentrations (10 - 60 mg/l), and carbonization temperatures (300 - 400 ℃). The Response Surface Methodology was utilized to model the adsorption capacities and removal efficiencies obtained. At carbonization temperature of 350 ℃, initial lead concentration of 60 mg/l, and adsorbent dosage of 3 g, the optimum removal efficiency and adsorption capacity 100% and 1.690 mg/g, respectively were observed. The veracity of the model equations was confirmed through the verification of the optimum adsorption conditions, with recorded percentage errors of 0.253% and 17.988%, for removal efficiency and adsorption capacity, respectively. The study's findings showed that rice husk activated carbon was highly effective in removing lead from wastewater. Furthermore, the model equations demonstrated reliability in forecasting the responses, and the optimum conditions were deemed valid.

References

Adamu A. D. and Adie, D. B. (2020). Assessment of Lead Adsorption onto Rice Husk Activated Carbon. Nig. J. of Eng. (NJE): 27 (2). 99 – 105.

Adamu, A. D., Abubakar, U. A., Sani, B. S. and Umar, A. (2021). Modelling and Optimization of Lead Adsorption onto Sugarcane Bagasse Activated Carbon. Nigerian Research J. of Eng. and Env. Sc. (RJEES), 6 (2), 520 – 529.

Adamu, A. D. and Adie, D. B. (2020). Assessment of Cadmium Adsorption from Wastewater onto Sugarcane Bagasse Activated Carbon. Bayero Journal of Engineering and Technology (BJET), 15 (1), 7 – 14.

Ansari, R. and Mohammad-Khah, A. (2009). Activated Charcoal: Preparation, Characterization and Applications: A review Article, Int. J. of ChemTech Research, 1 (4). 859 – 864.

Adamu, A. D., Sani, B. S., Muhammad, M. M. and Ahmed, O. A. (2023). Modelling and Optimization of Cadmium Removal from Wastewater onto Sugarcane Bagasse Activated Carbon, Nigerian Journal of Engineering (NJE), 30 (1), 36 – 42. doi:10.5455/nje.2023.30.01.06

Adamu, A., Adie, D. B., Okuofu, C. A. and Giwa, A. (2018). Removal of Cadmium from Wastewater using Rice Husk Activated Carbon. Nigerian Research Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences (RJEES), 3 (2), 632 – 642.

Alam, Md. M., Hossain, Md. A., Hossain, Md. D., Johir, M .A. H., Hossen, J., Rahman ,Md. S., Zhou, J. L., Kamrul Hassan, A. T. M., Karmakar, A. K. and Ahmed, M. B. (2020). The Potentiality of Rice Husk Derived Activated Carbon: From Synthesis to Application. Proc. 8(2), 203. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8020203

Ataguba, C. O. and Brink, I. (2022). Application of Isotherm Models to Combined Filter Systems for the Prediction of Iron and Lead Removal from Automobile Workshop Storm water Runoff, Water SA 48 (4), 476 – 486. https://doi.org/10.17159/wsa/2022.v48.i4.3971

Babaso, P. N. and Sharanagouda, H. (2017). Rice Husk and Its Application: Review. International J. of Curr. Mic. and App. Sc. 6 (10). 1144 – 1156.

Bari, Md. N., Muna, F. Y., Rahnuma, M., Hossain, Md. I. (2022). Production of Activated Carbon from Rice Husk and its Proximate Analysi, J. of EngSc, 13 (1), 105 – 112. doi: 10.3329/jes.v13i.60568

Daouda, A., Tomga, T., Richard, D., Koyang, J. Bertrand, N. G. and Massai, H. (2022). Facile Synthesis of Activated Carbon Derived from Rice Husk and Jatropha Shell, Characterization and Application in the Enhanced Adsorption of Cu and Fe in Aqueous Solution. Res. Sq., 1 – 17. https://doi.org/10.21203.rs.3.rs-1420050/v1

Dauda, K. T., Atise, V. N. and Adeoye, O. B. (2015). The Kinetics and Equilibrium Studies of (Cu2+ and Pb2+ ) from Industrial Wastewater using Rice Husk as Adsorbent, Int. J. of Advance Research in Chem. Sc. (IJARCS), 2 (4), 13 – 21

El Said, A. G., Badawy, N. A. and Garamon, N. E. (2018). Adsorption of Heavy Metal Ions from Aqueous Solutions onto Rice Husk Ash Low Cost Adsorbent, J. of Environ. & Anal. Toxicol., 8 (1), 1-5. doi: 10.4172/2161-0525.1000543

Flores-Gomez, J., Romero-Allerano, V. H., Vazquez-Lepe, M., Martinez-Gomez, A.d.J, Morales-Rivera, J. (2023). Modelling and Optimization of the Adsorption of Cr (VI) in a Chitosan-Resole Aerogel using Response Surface Methodology, Gels 2023: 9 (197). https://doi.org/10.3390/gels9030197.

Hanum, F., Banu, O. and Wirani, L. I. (2017). Characterization of Activated Carbon from Rice Husk by HCl Activation and Its Application for Lead (Pb) Removal in Car Battery Wastewater, 1st App. Sc. and Eng. Conf.= IOP Conf. Ser.: Mat. Sc. and Eng. 180. doi:10.1088/1757-899X/180/1/012151

Ibrahim, S. (2010). Application of Response Surface Methodology in Optimization of Cadmium Adsorption by Raw Rice Husk, International Conference on Environmental and Agriculture Engineering, ICEAE 2010.

Idris, S., Iyaka, Y. A., Ndamitso, M. M., Mohammed, E.B. and Umar, M. T. (2011). Evaluation of Kinetic Models of Copper and Lead Uptake from Dye Wastewater by Activated Pride of Barbados Shell, American J. of Chem. 1 (2), 47 – 51. doi: 10.5923/j/chemistry.20110102.10

Khan, T., Abd Manan, T. B. S., Isa, M. H., Ghanim, A. A. J., Beddu, S., Jusoh, H., Iqbal, M. S., Ayele, G. T. and Jami, M. S. (2020). Modeling of Copper Adsorption from Aqueous Solution using Artificial Neural Network, Nat. Lib. of Med., Molecules 25 (14), 1 – 15. doi: 10.3390/molecules25143263

Mistry B. (2016). Properties and Industrial Application of Rice Husk, Int. J. of Eng. Sc. and Comp., 6 (10). 2677 – 2679.

Mitra, T., Bar, N. and Das, S. K. (2019). Rice Husk: Green Adsorbent for Pb (II) and Cr (VI) Removal from Aqueous Solution-Column Study and GA-NN Modelling, SN App. Sci. 1:486, https://doi.org/10.1007/s42452-019-0513-5

Mohammad, Y. S., Shaibu-Imodagbe, E. M., Igboro, S. B., Giwa, A. and Okuofu, C. A. (2014). Adsorption from Refinery Wastewater Using Rice Husk Activated Carbon, Iranica J. of Energy and Env. 5 (4), 393 – 399. doi:10.5829/idosi.ijee.2014.05.04.07

Mohammad, Y. S. (2015). Performance Evaluation of Rice Husk Activated Carbon for Treatment of Water and Removal of Phenol (PhD Thesis), Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, Ahamdu Bello University Zaria-Nigeria.

Montalvo-Anvia, J., Reategui-Romeo, W., Pena-Contreras, A. D., Alvarez, W. F. Z., King-Santos, M. E., Farnandez-Guzman, V., Guerrero-Guevara, J. L. and Puris-Naupay, J. E. (2022). Adsorption of Cd II using Chemically Modified Rice Husk: Characterization, Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies. Ads. Sc and Tech. Hindawi 1-17. doi: https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/3688155

Mohammad, Y. S., Shaibu-Imodagbe, E. M., Igboro, S., Giwa, A. and Okuofu, C. A. (2014). Modelling and Optimization for Production of Rice Husk Activated and Removal of Phenol, Journal of Engineering 2014, Hindawi Pub. Cooperation. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/278075

Niu, X., Zheng, L., Zhou, J., Dang, Z. and Zesheng, L. (2014). Synthesis of an Adsorbent from Sugarcane Bagasse by Graft Copolymerization and its Utilization to Remove Cd (II) ions from Aqueous Solution. Journal of the Taiwan Inst. of Chem. Engineers 45, 2557 – 2564.

Olalekan, A., Fakinle, B., Dada, A. O., Akpor, O. and Aribayo, O. (2019). Optimization of Lead Adsorption on Rice Husk Supported Zerovalent Iron Nanoparticles using Response Surface Methodology 25, Nano Hybrids and Comp. doi.org/ 10.428/www.scientific.net/NHC.25.1.

Sa’ad, M. J., Hua, C.C., Misran, S., Zakaria, S., Sajab, M.S. and Abdulrahman M. H. (2020). Rice Husk Activated Carbon with NaOH Activation: Physical and Chemical Properties. Sains Malaysiana 49 (9), 2261 – 2267. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.17576/jsm-2020-4909-23.

Saeed, A. M. H., Harun, N. Y., Sufian, S., Bilad, M .R., Nufida, B. A., Ismail, N. M., Zakaria, Z. Y., Jagaba, A. H. Ghaleb, A. A. S. and Al-Dhawi, B. N. S. (2021). Modelling and Optimization of Biochar Based Adsorbent Derived from Kenaf using Response Surface Methodology on Adsorption of Cd2+, Water, 13 (7), 999, 1 – 18. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13070999

Sivaprakasam, A., Venugopal, T. (2019). Modelling the Removal of Lead from Synthetic Contaminated Water by Activated Carbon from Biomass of Diplocyclos Paltamus by RSM, Global NEST J. 21 (3), 320 – 328. https://doi.org/10.30955/gnj.002929

Wang, L. H. and Lin, C. I. (2008). Adsorption of Lead (II) Ion from Aqueous Solution using Rice Hull Ash, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 47 (14), 4891 – 4897. https://doi.org/10.1021/ie071521z

World Data Atlas (2020). Nigeria- Rice Paddy Production Quantity, available online at Nigeria Rice, Paddy Production, 1961-2021 - knoema.com. Accessed on November 2, 2022.

Youssef, A., Ahmed A. I., Amin, M. I. and El-Banna, U. A. (2014). Adsorption of Lead by Activated Carbon Developed from Rice Husk, Desalination and Water Treatment, 54 (6), 1-14, doi:10.1080/19443994.2014.896289

Published
2023-12-31