Biochemical and Histopathological Effects of Exposure to Diesel Fumes on Vital Organs of Wistar Rats (Rattus Norvegicus)
AbstractDiesel is a volatile petrochemical product and exposure to diesel fumes may be harmful to normal body physiology by increasing serum lipid peroxidation, creatine, and PCV levels. In this study, the effect of diesel fumes inhalation on Wistar rats was assessed. Twenty Wistar rats were clustered into 4 groups (A, B, C, and D) each containing 5 rats after acclimatisation for 2 weeks. Groups B, C, and D were exposed to diesel fumes for 1, 3, and 6 hours per day, five times a week for 8 weeks respectively, while rats in group A served as unexposed control. At the end of the experiment, blood was collected from rats in each group and haematological and biochemical parameters were analyzed using automated hematological and chemical analyzers respectively. Histopathological analyses of the kidney, liver, and lungs were done following tissue sectioning and staining. There was a significant increase (P< 0.05) in the packed cell volume and leucocytes of rats exposed to diesel fumes as compared to the control. Exposure to diesel fumes also caused elevated levels of the liver and kidney biomarkers. Histopathological studies showed diffuse tubular degeneration and congestion of the renal cortex; mild portal congestion and periportal connective tissues in the liver and mild congestion at the pulmonary interstitium in the lungs. The results from this study highlights the negative effects of exposure to diesel fumes and the need for safer alternatives like solar energy for power generation.
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